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塞尔柱帝国

Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
大塞尔柱帝国

1037年-1194年
1092年处于鼎盛时期的大塞尔柱帝国
1092年处于鼎盛时期的大塞尔柱帝国
地位帝国
首都内沙布尔
(1037–1043)
雷伊
(1043–1051)
伊斯法罕
(1051–1118)
哈马丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅尔夫东都 (1118–1153)
常用语言
政府君主制
苏丹或沙阿 
• 1037–1063
图赫里勒一世(首)
• 1174–1194
图赫里勒三世(末)[5][6]
历史 
• 图赫里勒建国
1037年
• 花剌子模建国[7]
1194年
面积
1080年估计3,900,000平方公里
前身 继承
加兹尼王国
白益王朝
沙勒立王朝
拜占庭帝国
格古益王朝
古尔王朝
花剌子模帝国
鲁姆苏丹国
阿尤布王朝
埃尔迪古兹王朝
布里迪王朝
赞吉王朝
达尼什曼德王朝
阿尔图格王朝
萨尔图吉王朝
今属于
系列条目
土耳其历史
土耳其国旗
Portal-puzzle.svg 土耳其主题
Faravahar background
大伊朗地区历史
现代国家兴起前
现代之前

大塞尔柱帝国现代土耳其语:Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu;波斯语دولت سلجوقیان‎),又称塞尔柱帝国塞尔柱土耳其帝国,是中世纪时期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]逊尼派伊斯兰帝国,由乌古斯人中的一支发展而来[16],领土范围东至兴都库什山脉,西至东部安纳托利亚,北至中亚,南至波斯湾。塞尔柱人由咸海发迹,随后挺进呼罗珊,再入波斯地区,最终征服东安纳托利亚。

11世纪前半叶,塞尔柱王朝的创立者图格鲁勒·贝格为帝国的建立打下了基础。自1037年正式建国后,塞尔柱人统一了支离分裂的东部伊斯兰世界,并在第一次第二次十字军东征中扮演了重要的角色。塞尔柱帝国在文化[17][18][19]和语言[10][20][21][22][23]上表现为高度波斯化[10][11][12][13],并在突厥-波斯文化的发展传承上具有十分重要的地位[24],同时还将波斯文化传播至安纳托利亚[25][26]。突厥部落在帝国西北部的战略性定居大大促进了这些地区的突厥化[27]

历史

背景

八世纪伊朗地区在经历伊斯兰征服后,相继由阿拉伯帝国倭马亚王朝(又称伍麦叶、白衣大食)、阿拔斯王朝(黑衣大食)统治。随着阿拔斯王朝与拜占庭帝国的长年战争,帝国对伊朗地区的控制持续衰弱。九世纪末,萨曼·胡达英语Saman Khuda击退阿拉伯人,在伊朗东部建立了萨曼王朝。十世纪末,萨曼的突厥奴隶将军阿尔普特勤及其女婿苏布克特勤自立加兹尼王朝,取代旧主,掌握伊朗东部的统治权;与重夺伊朗西部的阿拉伯白益王朝分庭抗礼。在动乱中,各势力常雇佣北方中亚地区的游牧民族为佣兵,乌古斯人是其中较为强大的一支。

建立

起初,塞尔柱人属于乌古斯人中的一个部族,以雇佣兵的身份在突厥斯坦地区活跃。公元985年,由于与乌古斯领袖的争执,塞尔柱·贝格带领部族离开了乌古斯叶护国,独立为新的部族。他们在锡尔河一带游牧并皈依伊斯兰教,并以佣兵的身份参与了喀喇汗国的王位内战,与乌古斯族、加兹尼王朝交恶。

1040年,塞尔柱的孙子图赫里勒·贝格恰格勒·贝格丹丹纳干战役中打倒了宿敌加兹尼王国,征服了伊朗东部的呼罗珊地区,图赫里勒自立为苏丹。为纪念祖父,兄弟将国名命为塞尔柱苏丹国。

扩张

建国之后,图格鲁勒将目光转向波斯湾北部,占领了伊拉克一带、米底亚王国南部哈马丹等地。1055年,他替阿拔斯哈里发白益王朝手中夺回巴格达,被正式追封为苏丹。塞尔柱人以哈里发的支持为后盾,进一步往南部巴勒斯坦地区以及西部小亚细亚(今土耳其)扩张。

此一时期的西亚,原先控制约旦河流域的法蒂玛王朝、握有小亚细亚的东罗马帝国皆因连年征战和国内腐败面临衰退,塞尔柱人多次蚕食臣属这俩国的势力,彼此间的冲突日渐白热化。

1071年8月,第二任苏丹阿尔普·阿尔斯兰曼齐刻尔特之战大败由罗曼努斯四世所率领的东罗马帝国军队,正式占领小亚细亚[28]。同年,塞尔柱人从法蒂玛王朝手中夺得圣城耶路撒冷[29]。在突厥部族从东方大举移入的情况下[30],东罗马皇帝阿莱克修斯一世教宗乌尔班二世求救。教宗因此在法国克列芒发表演说,招募民众解放圣地耶路撒冷。该演说直接促成了后来的第一次十字军[31]

第三任苏丹马立克沙一世则专注于与帝国东方的对手交战,他先后击败宿敌喀喇汗国加兹尼王国,稳固塞尔柱在中亚河中地区的统治,使帝国的疆域达到极致。

暗杀、分裂、十字军

尽管塞尔柱帝国扩张迅速,由于突厥游牧民本身行政人才的缺乏,使帝国必须仰赖大量原住民管理被征服地。以宰相尼札姆·穆勒克为首,帝国的军政要职大多由波斯人把持,“伊克塔”制的推行侧面象征突厥人缺乏管理领地行政的意愿。另外,由于宗教政策的缘故,波斯人与伊斯玛仪派的关系也持续恶化,阿萨辛等极端派系也随之出现。

1092年底,马立克沙一世与尼札姆的政争爆发,多方政治、宗教势力介入之下,两人在不到一个月的时间内接连被刺杀。权力的真空使帝国陷入分裂,继承人间为争夺王位纷纷占地为王,基利杰阿尔斯兰一世统治着安纳托利亚的罗姆苏丹国突突什一世英语Tutush I则执掌叙利亚,耶路萨冷重新为法提玛王朝掌控。而突突什一世于1095年死去后,其子法赫尔·穆尔克·拉德温英语Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英语Duqaq (Seljuk ruler of Damascus)又分别继承了阿勒颇大马士革,继承人短命与战乱频繁的恶性循环使帝国陷入衰退之中[32]

第一次十字军东征之前就分裂为若干势力的塞尔柱帝国,在面对欧洲人攻击时疲于应对,基利杰阿尔斯兰一世便于尼西亚埃斯基谢希尔等地陷入苦战,无力阻止十字军的步伐。最终,塞尔柱人丧失了地中海沿岸的大部分领土。

灭亡

1141年,西辽卡特万之战击败塞尔柱帝国,使塞尔柱失去了对中亚的控制。

1153年,乌古斯人擒获苏丹艾哈迈德·桑贾尔,并攻下古都内沙布尔,塞尔柱失去对波斯的控制,实际领土退缩至伊拉克阿塞拜疆一带。

1194年,花剌子模国王塔乞失哈马丹打败塞尔柱末代苏丹图赫里勒三世,塞尔柱帝国灭亡,版图并入花剌子模王朝。1243年,蒙古帝国入侵小亚细亚,蒙古大将拜住克塞山战役中击溃罗姆苏丹国的军队,从此罗姆苏丹国沦为蒙古伊儿汗国的藩属。1299年罗姆苏丹国发生分裂,1307年从历史记录上消失。

统治者列表

自马立克沙一世遇刺后,长期内战使独立政权在伊拉克阿塞拜疆等地频繁出现,本表仅列出实际控制波斯地区的苏丹:

苏丹 统治年期 注解
图赫里勒·贝格 1037年-1063年 与胞弟恰格勒·贝格采行双元统治。
阿尔普·阿尔斯兰 1063年-1072年
马立克沙一世 1072年-1092年
马哈茂德一世英语Mahmud I of Great Seljuq 1092年-1094年
巴尔基雅鲁克 1094年-1105年
马立克沙二世英语Malik-Shah II 1105年 控制区很小,被犬绝
穆罕默德一世英语Muhammad I Tapar 1105年-1117年 实际掌权者为其兄桑贾尔。
艾哈迈德·桑贾尔 1117年-1153年

参考资料

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  2. ^ Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
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  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
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  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
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  14. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
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    • According to Fridrik Thordarson, "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41-42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226-28, and VI, pp. 950-52). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."
  28. ^ 爱德华.吉朋《罗马帝国衰亡史》【第五卷】
  29. ^ 冯作民《西洋全史》(5)
  30. ^ 布林顿《西洋文化史》第二卷
  31. ^ 海天书楼《基督教二千年史》
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