万维百科

2021年美国国会示威

2021年美国国会示威
2020年美国选举抗议活动逆转2020年美国选举结果的尝试英语Attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election的一部分
Jan 6 2021 Pres Trump Rally Live DC Crowd.jpg
华盛顿特区内聚集的人群
日期2021年1月5日至今
地点
起因2020年美国总统大选
状况持续中
冲突方
领导人物
伤亡
死亡4[2]
受伤多人[1]
逮捕超过50[3][4][5]

2021年美国国会示威(英语:2021 United States Capitol protests)是指2021年1月5日至6日美国总统唐纳德·特朗普的支持者聚集在华盛顿抗议2020年的总统选举结果,[6][7]并要求副总统迈克·彭斯和国会拒绝认可当选总统乔·拜登的胜选。[8][9][10]1月6日上午,示威者聚集在椭圆形草坪上参加一场名为“拯救美国”的集会,这是一次计划中的活动。与会者听取了总统特朗普、小唐纳德·特朗普鲁迪·朱利安尼的煽动性演讲。示威活动最终演变为暴动,美国国会大厦被支持特朗的暴徒持枪攻入。该事件发生在特朗普及其盟友此前多次试图推翻选举结果的努力失败之后。

特朗普在演讲中指示他的支持者向美国国会大厦游行,试图推翻2020年大选结果。[11]随后,支持特朗普的示威者向国会进军,并最终冲进了国会大厦。[12]当时国会正在开会统计选举人团选票,正就得克萨斯州参议员泰德·克鲁兹亚利桑那州第四国会选区众议员保罗·戈萨拉反对统计亚利桑那州选举人团选票进行辩论。[3][13]示威者冲破安保人员的防线进入国会大厦,国会大厦建筑群被迫疏散,随后被全部封锁。[14]

在众议院议事厅门口发生的武装对峙中,[15][16]一名女性示威者被执法人员开枪击中,后因伤势过重身亡。[17][18][19]当天另外有三人因紧急医疗情况身亡。警方发现了三个简易爆炸装置:一个在国会大厦内,另外在国会大厦附近的共和党全国委员会民主党全国委员会办公室各发现了一个。[20][21]

1月6日下午,特朗普谴责彭斯及其副手没有“为保护我们的国家和宪法做应做的事情”[注 1],尽管彭斯在宪法上没有权利可以不承认拜登的胜利。[23][24][25]下午4点22分,特朗普在推特上敦促他的支持者“和平地回家”,同时将骚乱者描述为“爱国者”和“非常特别的人”表示对这些观点的认同[注 2],并重申他对选举舞弊的虚假指控。[27]当天晚上,推特对此,将特朗普的推特账号进行了长达12小时的锁定,并删除了他的三条推文,原因是他发帖公开纵容暴力冲击国会的支持者,违反了推特政策。[28][29]

骚乱和冲击国会大厦的事件被定性为叛乱煽动国内恐怖主义[30][31][32][33]一些媒体还将其称为未遂政变[34][35][36][37][38]本次事件是自1814年英国人在1812年战争期间纵火焚烧华盛顿以来,国会大厦首次被占领。[12][39]

起因

2020年美国总统选举民主党候选人乔·拜登击败现任共和党总统唐纳德·特朗普。但现任总统唐纳德·特朗普始终拒绝承认败选,并且指责民主党在选举中舞弊[40]

美国国会定于2021年1月6日召开会议,统计选举人团投票结果,特朗普宣布计划在会前举行集会,继续质疑多个州总统选举结果的有效性。12月18日,特朗普宣布“1月6日在华盛顿举行大型抗议活动。记得来,(活动)将很疯狂!”[注 3][41]华盛顿特区市长穆里尔·鲍泽英语Muriel Bowser在2020年12月31日要求在预期的示威活动中部署哥伦比亚特区国民警卫队,以支持当地警方。她在请求中写道,这人员不会携带武器,他们将主要负责“人群管理”和指挥交通,让警方专注于安全问题。代理国防部长克里斯托弗·米勒于2021年1月4日批准了这一请求。批准部署340名士兵,但任何时候不会同时部署超过114人。[42]

特朗普此前几天一直在暗示副总统彭斯应该拒绝当选总统拜登的胜利结果,但这并不在彭斯在美国宪法所授予的权力范围之内,而特朗普在1月6日上午发表的演讲中重复了这一呼吁。[24]同一天下午,彭斯发表了一封致国会的信,他在信中表示他并没有权力去接受或反对各州选举人团提供的选举结果。[24]

过程

2021年1月5日

2021年1月5日,数千名与会者聚集在自由广场,为计划在本周晚些时候举行的抗议活动做准备。[43]周二晚至周三上午,至少有10人被捕,其中几人因武器相关指控被捕。[3]

2021年1月6日

“拯救美国”集会

1月5日,集会前一天发布的宣传单
周三上午联合车站的抗议者
鲁迪·朱利安尼椭圆形草坪对抗议者发表讲话

2021年1月6日上午,示威者围着华盛顿纪念碑举行集会。一些人在椭圆形草坪上发表演讲,包括特朗普的法律顾问鲁迪·朱利安尼和特朗普本人。朱利安尼在人群中发表讲话,重复了大选中使用的投票机器是“动了手脚”(Crooked)的阴谋论并要求“比武审判”(Trial by combat)。[44]特朗普在玻璃幕墙后发表演讲,攻击媒体,并呼吁彭斯推翻选举结果,但这不是彭斯的宪法权力范围内的事情。[45]特朗普敦促他的支持者向方国会大厦游行:

你永远不能通过软弱来夺回我们的国家。你必须展示实力并强大起来。我们来是要求国会做正确的事,只计算那些合法的选举人票。我知道在座的各位很快就会前往国会大楼,和平地、爱国地发出你们的声音。[注 4]

在集会上,特朗普告诉他的支持者“战斗。我们要激烈的战斗。如果你不激烈的战斗,你将会失去(你的)国家”。[注 5]特朗普说,他们将“去国会大厦,我们要努力给”共和党人“夺回国家所需要的那种自豪感和勇气”。[注 6][47]

在集会上,特朗普还表示:“我们永远不会认输。”[注 7][48]特朗普的两个儿子小唐纳德·特朗普埃里克·特朗普也发表了讲话,对不支持改变选举人团投票结果的共和党众议员参议员进行了言语攻击,并承诺在未来的初选中与他们竞争。[49]

示威者闯入国会大厦

美国国会参众两院在下午举行联席会议,认证选举人团选出拜登为下一任美国总统。原本该流程在以往仅被当做是“走过场”,但由于部分共和党人此前表示将阻挠这一过程,因此外界预料认证过程将出现波折。当联席会议开始认证亚利桑那州的选举结果时,来自亚利桑那州的众议员保罗·戈萨拉以及来自得克萨斯州的参议员泰德·克鲁兹提出反对动议,联席会议被迫暂停,国会两院各自退回到自己的议院展开限时两小时的自由辩论。[50]

2021年1月6日下午2点15分左右开始,[51]开始试图冲击国会大厦建筑群。建筑群中的部分建筑被疏散,暴力示威者冲破安保进入国会大厦。[3][13]冲击国会大厦的行动多是在亲特朗普的极右翼社交媒体网站上组织,例如GabParler,这些网站上的一些内容呼吁对国会实施暴力,平台还被作为匿名者Q、“骄傲男孩”和其他边缘分子的招募中心长达数周。[52]在突破安全警戒线后,[53][54]大多数暴乱者步行进入国会大厦,其他暴乱则利用绳索和临时造出来的梯子进入大厦,有些人则打破窗户进入。[55]

在暴力示威者闯入国会后,国会大厦建筑群的所有建筑都被封锁,不许进出。大楼内的人被要求躲在办公室并锁好门窗。在办公室外的人则被告知“寻找掩护”。[56]执法人员开始在大楼内使用催泪瓦斯后,国会告诉还在场内的议员、工作人员和记者戴上防毒面具[15]数十人持枪与高举南方邦联战旗;参、众议员轮流被安全撤离。[16]俄勒冈州参议员杰夫·默克利称,一些工作人员成功地赶到议会厅,将数箱密封的选举人团选票解救出来避免被暴力示威者烧毁。[57][58]

之后,国会大厦内发生枪击事件,众议院议事厅前门发生武装对峙。[59][60]支持特朗普的暴力示威者闯入国会大厦后,多名警察在众议院议事厅内拔枪,并将枪口对准用家具挡住的议事厅大门。[61]一名闯入者在国会大厦内被执法人员开枪击中胸部,随后伤重不治。[17]一名执法官员告诉《华盛顿邮报》,警方认为死者没有携带武器,但开出致命一枪的警员在开枪时并不知道这一点,而警方了解到许多闯入者都隐蔽携带了武器。[17]闯入国会大厦的暴力示威者还冲进众议院议长南希·佩洛西的办公室,掀翻桌子并撕毁了挂在墙壁上的照片。国会大厦内也发生了抢劫事件。[62][63]国会警察报告说,大楼已被“捣毁”。[64]观察者看到大楼里所有的位置都有“碎片、垃圾,都在电梯里,东西被撞倒,柱子也被撞倒”。[65]国家雕像大厅的玻璃窗被打破。暴力示威者在追赶记者后,在国会大厦外摧毁了美联社的录音和广播设备。[66]在国会大厦的暴力事件中,有多名警员受伤。[1]

紧急回应

弗吉尼亚州州长诺森派出了弗吉尼亚国民警卫队和200名弗吉尼亚州警支援华盛顿特区的执法工作。[71]马里兰州州长拉里·霍甘也宣布将派出马里兰州州警和马里兰州国民警卫队。[72][73]下午3点45分左右,代理国防部长克里斯托弗·米勒在征求副总统彭斯、众议院议长佩洛西、参议员多数党领袖麦康奈尔以及参议院少数党领袖舒默但意见之后,指示国民警卫队和其他“额外的支持”应对骚乱。[74][75][76]当地时间下午5时许,陆军部长莱恩·麦卡锡(Ryan McCarthy)和米勒决定部署华盛顿特区国民警卫队全部1100人的兵力来平息暴力事件。[77]特朗普最初曾抵制出动国民警卫队,而部署的命令由副总统彭斯的批准。[78]据《***》报道,“不清楚”为什么批准部署的不是特朗普。[79]

国会警察在国会大厦的参议院一侧部署了烟雾弹,以努力将暴乱者清理出大厦。[64]下午4点半左右,身穿防暴装备的联邦调查局美国国土安全部特工进入迪尔森参议院办公大楼。[80]

新泽西州州长菲尔·墨菲英语Phil Murphy在下午4点57分宣布,应华盛顿特区官员的要求,他已部署新泽西州警察局的人员到哥伦比亚特区,新泽西国民警卫队也准备在必要时部署。[81]下午5点前不久,国会领导人从国会大厦疏散到附近的麦克奈尔堡陆军基地。[82]下午5点40分左右,在警方强势介入,并使用催泪瓦斯与闪光弹等手段清场后,负责维持秩序和安全的美国联邦参众两院的纠仪长宣布“国会安全了”。[83][16]

简易爆炸装置

简易爆炸装置在华盛顿特区的几个地点被发现,在共和党全国委员会(RNC)办公室的大楼里发现了一个疑似管状炸弹的装置。[20]民主党全国委员会(DNC)总部则在发现一个可疑包裹(后来报告是自制炸弹)后被疏散。[84]共和党全国委员会大楼和民主党全国委员会总部离国会大厦只有几个街区。[85]1月6日下午,在共和党全国委员会大楼和国会大厦院内发现的装置都被拆弹小组安全引爆。[20]官方不确定这些装置是否处于工作状态。[86]

在一枚炸弹附近发现一辆载有步枪燃烧瓶的汽车,一人因此被捕。[84]华盛顿特区警察还报告称,发现了一个装有燃烧瓶的冷藏箱。[5]

事后处理

警方继续试图将暴乱者赶出国会大厦。抗议活动仍在继续,一些人则撤出了国会山地区。据报道,一些人对记者进行了言语和肢体攻击,攻击者诋毁媒体机构为“假新闻”。[57]

截至下午6:08,警方在当天的事件中逮捕了至少13人,并缴获了5支枪支。[87]虽然市长鲍瑟实施了晚上6点的宵禁,但基本上被人们忽视了,数百名支持特朗普的示威者仍然留在国会山地区。[88]截至晚上10:30。又有47人因违反宵禁而被逮捕。[5]至少有6人因当天的事件而住院,其中包括一名执法人员。[89]14名华盛顿特区警察局的警察受伤。4人死亡;1人在国会大厦被执法人员开枪打死,另外3人死于紧急情况。[5]

1月6日晚,华盛顿特区国民警卫队的2700名士兵和弗吉尼亚国民警卫队的650名士兵将被派往华盛顿特区。[90]1月6日晚,市长鲍瑟发布命令,将华盛顿特区的公共紧急状态延长15天,她在命令中写道,她预计一些人将“在就职典礼前继续进行暴力抗议活动”。[91][92]

国会恢复议程

在清场后,参议院率先于1月6日晚8时复会恢复辩论,并简短谴责了示威群众入侵国会的行为。[93]众议院议长南希·佩洛西表示,国会大厦遇袭事件不会“阻止我们履行确认乔·拜登当选的责任”,她与其他众议院领袖、五角大楼司法部迈克·彭斯协商后,决定当晚重新召开会议。即将成为参议院少数党领袖的现任参议院多数党领袖米奇·麦康奈尔称冲击国会大厦是一场“失败的叛乱”,并表示“我们回到了我们的岗位,我们将根据宪法和为我们的国家履行职责。而我们今晚就要做到这一点”。[94]

各方反应

美国国内

美国总统当选人拜登于当地时间下午在特拉华州发表演讲,谴责示威者的暴行并表示“在这个时刻,我们的民主正遭受前所未有的攻击,这次袭击实在现代社会中实所未见的。这是在袭击自由的堡垒,这是在袭击国会大厦。”[95]

美国前总统乔治·W·布什在当地时间下午7时许发表了声明,称“对国会山的袭击是令人心碎及沮丧的”,并希望美国人民支持选举结果。[96]

特朗普女儿伊万卡·特朗普在Twitter上表示示威人士是“爱国者”,言论引发争议后删除。之后针对相关争议,再回应和平示威是爱国的表现并谴责暴力[97]

得州众议院英语Texas House of Representatives警卫官沃尔特·韦斯特在Facebook上发表支持示威的言论,随后被得州共和党解雇[98]

1月6日晚间,美国众议院司法委员会的民主党成员发表声明,认为特朗普始终不愿接受2020年大选结果,还有意煽动暴力和社会动荡、以武力推翻选举结果,因而敦促美国副总统彭斯和特朗普的内阁成员援引美国宪法第25条修正案罢免特朗普[99][100]

国际反应

国家

  •  英国英国首相强森发推文称闯入国会的行为“可耻”,呼吁和平的政权交接,“美国是全世界的民主代表,现在和平有序的政权交接至关重要”;英国外相拉布6日稍早时也表示,英国政府相信美国体制会让选举结果“得到合适的确认和尊重”。[16]
  •  西班牙西班牙总理桑切斯发推文称其相信美国民主的力量,新任美国总统拜登会克服这一切,团结美国。[16]
  •  德国德国外长马斯称“民主的敌人会因为这次闯入行动感到欢欣鼓舞”,并呼总统吁特朗普“接受美国民众的选择”。[101]
  •  加拿大:加拿大首相特鲁多表达了他对事件的担忧,并称“我们严重关切美国发生的事态”,随后他在接受温哥华一电台采访的时候表示“我们相信美国的民主制度是强大的,希望一切尽快回归平常。”[102]
  •  瑞典:瑞典外长斯特凡·勒文形容这次示威是“对民主的袭击”,并称“特朗普总统以及不少美国国会成员对此次示威行为负有不可推卸的责任,选举总统的过程必须被尊重。”[102]
  •  澳大利亚:澳大利亚总理莫里森形容此次示威是“令人担忧的”,并在Twitter上表示“我们谴责此次暴力行为,并期待美国会一如既往地和平地过渡权力给下一届政府。”[102]
  • 新西兰 新西兰:新西兰总理杰辛达·阿德恩在Twitter上表示“民主——人民行使投票的权力,让他们的声音被听到以及和平地坚持此权力,永不应被暴力所胁迫。我们与其他人一样对今天所发生的事情感到震惊,但我们坚信民主终将胜利。”[102]
  •  芬兰:芬兰总理桑娜·马林在一份申明中表示“对美国国会山的袭击是极其严重以及担忧的事件。这次袭击也表明了捍卫民主的重要性。”[102]
  •  土耳其:土耳其外长发表了一份申明表达了对暴力的担忧,以及呼吁土耳其公民尽量避开示威区域。[102]
  •  法国:法国外长勒德里昂在Twitter上表示“对美国国会的暴力袭击也是对民主的严重袭击。我谴责这种行为。美国人民的意愿和投票必须被尊重。”[102]

国际组织

  •  北约:北大西洋公约组织秘书长史托腾柏格推文表示,他在华府目睹震惊的一幕,而民主选举的结果必须被尊重。[16]
  •  欧盟欧洲议会议长戴维·萨索利推文表示:“高度关切今晚发生在美国国会的一切,民主投票必须受到尊重,我们确定美国会确保民主规则受保护。”[16]

商业公司

特朗普在Twitter上呼吁示威者和平守法,离开国会。Twitter删除特朗普部分推文,是Twitter首次以非版权为由删除推文,特朗普的个人账号也被封锁十二小时。Twitter表示,如果特朗普继续违反相关规定,他的账号将会被删除。FacebookYouTube也删除特朗普发布的相关影片。Facebook表示会审查和删除和这次示威有关的内容[103]。特朗普在Facebook和Instagram的个人账号也被封锁二十四小时[104]

参见

注释

  1. ^ 原文:“Mike Pence didn’t have the courage to do what should have been done to protect our Country and our Constitution, giving States a chance to certify a corrected set of facts, not the fraudulent or inaccurate ones which they were asked to previously certify.”[22]
  2. ^ 原文:“So go home. We love you. You’re very special. You’ve seen what happens. You see the way others are treated that are so bad and so evil. I know how you feel. But go home and go home in peace.”[26]
  3. ^ 原文:“Big protest in D.C. on January 6th. Be there, will be wild!”[41]
  4. ^ 原文:“You'll never take back our country with weakness. You have to show strength and you have to be strong. We have come to demand that Congress do the right thing and only count the electors who have been lawfully slated. I know that everyone here will soon be marching over to the Capitol building to peacefully and patriotically make your voices heard today.”[46]
  5. ^ 原文:“Fight. We fight like hell. And if you don’t fight like hell, you’re not going to have a country anymore.”[47]
  6. ^ 原文:“going to the Capitol and we’re going to try and give” (Republicans) “the kind of pride and boldness that they need to take back our country.”[47]
  7. ^ 原文:“We will never concede.”[48]

参考

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